Thursday, November 7, 2019

Air Pollution in the Los Angeles Basin Essay Example

Air Pollution in the Los Angeles Basin Essay Example Air Pollution in the Los Angeles Basin Paper Air Pollution in the Los Angeles Basin Paper 2010). In addition, acid rain will accelerate the decay of building materials and paints, including irreplaceable buildings, statues, and sculptures that are part of LASS cultural heritage. On a larger scale, changes in atmosphere composition are contributing to ozone depletion and global climate change. Ozone in the stratosphere protects us from dangerous LIVE radiation, but ozone close to the Earth is toxic to both animals and plants (Apollonian, Hugh, Chorea, camp; Seek-Woo, 201 1). People exposed to ozone develop respiratory symptoms resulting in lose of some lung function. As air levels worsen, ozone will become more abundant in the air we breathe. It is shown that areas of ozone depletion are now roughly two to three times larger than past measurements (Apollonian et al. , 201 1). Holes in the ozone layer will continue to expand with the buildup of air pollutants and will ultimately trigger an increase in global climate change. Los Angles has one of the worst reputations for air pollution, but how does it compare to other cities in the Unites States? There is a prominent correlation between highly populated areas and high air pollution levels. During the late sasss and early 1 asss, immigration in America was extremely high. Immigrants came looking for cheap housing and a job. Most found work in highly industrious areas like New York City, Chicago, and Los Angles. With an abundance Of cheap labor, industries grew and multiplied populating the cities where they were located. Today, unsurprisingly, the cities with the highest populations have the most concerning problems of air pollution. The most populated cities, in ascending order, are New York City, Los Angles, Chicago, Houston, Phoenix, and Philadelphia (Most Populated Cities in US, 2011). However, LA has the most serious ozone problem in the united States (Los Angles; Traffic and Smog, 1994). Many would assume New York City to have the worst air pollution levels, but the colder climate and northern geographic location help to clear out smog and rid the area of lingering pollutants. Although cities like Chicago and Houston have a higher level of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions, researchers conclude the high level of ozone makes LA the city with the worst overall air pollution report in the USA (Quo-Jean teal. , 2010). If LA has the worst air pollution in the USA, how does it compare to other cities around the world? Same as in the US, cities with the highest populations tend to have Geiger levels of chemicals and greenhouse gases in the air. Chow (2004) uses the term megabits as a classification for cities with extremely large populations and correspondingly high pollution levels. LA is classified as a megabits but is ranked twelfth after cities like Tokyo, Mexico City, Iambi, and Shanghai. The article Los Angles; Traffic and Smog (1994) declares Mexico City to be the only city with higher ozone levels than LA. Also, urban European cities experience a greater number of problems with nitrogen oxide, which intensify as you move south. Athens is a main concern in this area (Pearson, 2001). After completion of full air pollution reports, LAs air composition is better than that of eight other megabits. Delhi, India comes in first followed by Kola, India and Jakarta, Indonesia (Chow, 2004). Although many interest groups and people are concerned with the air pollution in LA, the plethora of challenges for improving air quality makes it difficult to take effective action. As made evident in cities around the world, the common factor for places with high pollution is high population. This cites a major challenge for reducing air pollution since LAs population continues to expand. LA has experienced an eleven percent increase in population since 1990 and a five percent increase since 2000 (Los Angles Population Growth Statistics, 2012). If this pattern persists, decreasing the population in LA will not be an adequate solution to fix air quality. Another challenge for reducing air pollution in LA is the lack of public transportation made available to citizens. Los Angles developed with almost no public transportation network. Consequently, the residents must rely on personal motor vehicles for almost all transportation (Los Angles; Traffic and Smog, 1994). The unman to vehicle ratio is over one to one, which is extremely high compared to other places. A majority of chemicals in the LA air are released from motor vehicles as a result. Little usage of public transportation is a key reason why LAs air pollution is worse than other cities with a similar population. The creation Of a new, efficient public transportation network would reduce the need for personal motor vehicles and therefore decrease air pollution. In order to effectively improve air quality, government action would be needed. There have been past attempts to by both national and local governments to jugulate this crisis. The formation of the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAMMED) in the early sasss sought to create air pollution controls. After developing a consistent set of regulations for the four-county area, SCAMMED adopted several significant emission-reductions measures, including rules to control man-made dust and reduce nitrogen oxides from power plants by 90% (Fiftieth Anniversary of Smog War, 1997). SCAMMED now monitors air quality at thirty-seven stations distributed throughout the basin (Chow, 2004). The Clean Air Act of 1990 is another government attempt to reduce air elution. The emission controls of the three-tier plan represent the most severe air quality management requirements ever proposed for any city (Los Angles; Traffic and Smog, 1994). The law encourages the use of market- based principles and other innovative approaches, and provides a framework from which alternative clean fuels will be used. The law promotes the use of clean low sulfur coal and natural gas. In addition, an acid rain program that gives utilities flexibility to obtain needed emission reductions Was created to encourage customers to conserve energy (Clean Air Act Amendment, 1990). Overall, the law has caused a decline in ambient concentrations of particulate matter. However, many question its effectiveness since there have been only minimal changes in LAs air composition after twenty years of its implementation. With stronger enforcement of The Clean Air Act of 1 990 and efforts by the SCAMMED, the LA Basin will have a cleaner and clearer future. Development of renewable energy sources and cleaner technology will also contribute to a promising future for LA air quality. Over the past decade or so, tech oenology for the utilization of renewable resources has been materialized and put to use around the world. Southern California alone has dozens of projects in production (Renewable Energy, 2009). The landscape and location of Southern California create an ideal environment for solar and wind farms. Nearby deserts provide flat land and high-intensity sunrays perfect for solar panel technology, while coastal winds can be captured and converted to energy by wind turbines. The growing popularity of hybrid and low-emission vehicles will also help to reduce chemicals in the atmosphere. Recent productions of different hybrid and low-emission vehicle models, like the Ionians Leaf or Chevy Volt, are making these types of vehicles more angle and appealing to the public. Also, the SCAMMED is co-sharing the project cost with a number of industries to develop a way to use H2O instead of gasoline, as well as compare different fueling strategies and H2O production methods (Chow, 2004). With the use of renewable the SCAMMED intends to advance the technology, improve competition, gain experience, and, therefore, reduce the costs to accelerate centralization (Chow, 2004). These exciting advancements in the technology and use of renewable resources provide an approach to reduce our reliance on fossil fuels and lessen the amount of greenhouse gases being released into the air. Along with the use of modern technologies, passage of stricter legislation concerning emissions into the environment will help boost the air quality in LA. Economic instruments such as emission taxes and emission trading Will utilize the power of the market to encourage use of cleaner technology and fuels (Quo-Jean et al. , 2010). A market-based system will produce methods to reduce greenhouse emissions through use of the polluter pays concept (Chow, 2004). Constructing legislation of this kind will force citizens and corporations to cooperate and contribute in the effort to revivalist the atmosphere of the LA Basin. Los Angles plays host to millions of tourist year round coming to visit famous LA attractions, get a taste of Hollywood glamour, or to see the beauty of California. Travelers can find these experiences, however, few anticipate the reality of extremely poor air quality conditions. When in fact, LA has the worst air pollution reports of any city in the country. If citizens cooperate with government policies and reduce dependence on fossil fuels, levels of greenhouse gas emissions in the Los Angles Basin will diminish overtime.

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